Der FC Nischni Nowgorod ist ein russischer Fußballverein aus Nischni Nowgorod, der gegründet wurde und derzeit in der russischen Fußballnationalliga spielt. Nischni Nowgorod (russisch Нижний Новгород (Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel anhören); bis humblesorkester.se: Stadion Nizhny Novgorod (englisch); ↑ Offizielle Website der Stadt Nischni Nowgorod: Internationale Beziehungen (Memento. Many translated example sentences containing "Nizhny" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Collini am Standort Nizhny Novgorod ist spezialisiert auf Schichtwerkstoffkombinationen im Bereich Korrosionsschutz und dekorative Oberflächengestaltung. . Die MS ”Nizhny Novgorod” wurde in Deutschland gebaut (Projekt ), im Jahr vollständig restauriert und verfügt über vier Decks.
Nischni Nowgorod (russisch Нижний Новгород (Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel anhören); bis humblesorkester.se: Stadion Nizhny Novgorod (englisch); ↑ Offizielle Website der Stadt Nischni Nowgorod: Internationale Beziehungen (Memento. Auf Tripadvisor finden Sie alles für Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Föderationskreis Wolga: 68' unabhängige Bewertungen von Hotels, Restaurants und. Die MS ”Nizhny Novgorod” wurde in Deutschland gebaut (Projekt ), im Jahr vollständig restauriert und verfügt über vier Decks.
The enormous red-brick kremlin , one of the strongest and earliest preserved citadels in Russia, was built in — under the supervision of Peter the Italian.
The fortress was strong enough to withstand Tatar sieges in and In , the so-called "national militia", gathered by a local merchant, Kuzma Minin , and commanded by Knyaz Dmitry Pozharsky expelled the Polish troops from Moscow, thus putting an end to the " Time of Troubles " and establishing the rule of the Romanov dynasty.
The main square in front of the Kremlin is named after Minin and Pozharsky , although it is locally known simply as Minin Square. Minin's remains are buried in the citadel.
In commemoration of these events, on October 21, , an exact copy of the Red Square statue of Minin and Pozharsky was placed in front of St John the Baptist Church, which is believed to be the place from where the call to the people had been proclaimed.
In the course of the following century, the city prospered commercially and was chosen by the Stroganovs the wealthiest merchant family of Russia as a base for their operations.
A particular style of architecture and icon painting, known as the Stroganov style , developed there at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries.
The historical coat of arms of Nizhny Novgorod in was a red deer with black horns and hooves on a white field.
The modern coat of arms from is the same, with a ribbon of order of Lenin and gold crown from above. In , the Makaryev Fair , one of the liveliest in the world, was transferred to Nizhny Novgorod, and started to attract millions of visitors annually.
By the midth century, the city was firmly established as the trade capital of the Russian Empire. The world's first radio receiver by engineer Alexander Popov and the world's first hyperboloid tower and lattice shell-coverings by engineer Vladimir Shukhov were demonstrated at the All-Russia industrial and art exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod in According to official Imperial Russian statistics the population of Nizhny Novgorod as of 14 January was 97, The largest industrial enterprise was the Sormovo Iron Works which was connected by the company's own railway to Moscow station in the Lower Area of Nizhny Novgorod.
Other industries gradually developed, and by the start of the 20th century the city was also a first-rank industrial hub.
Henry Ford helped build a large truck and tractor plant GAZ in the late s, sending engineers and mechanics, including future labour leader Walter Reuther.
There were no permanent bridges over the Volga or Oka before the October Revolution in Temporary bridges were built during the trade fair. The first bridge over the Volga was started by the Moscow—Kazan Railway Company in , but only finished in the Soviet Era when the railway to Kotelnich was opened for service in In his novels he described the dismal life of the city proletariat.
When he returned to the Soviet Union in on the invitation of Joseph Stalin , the city was renamed Gorky. The city bore Gorky's name until His childhood home is preserved as a museum, known as the Kashirin House, after Alexey's grandfather who owned the place.
The Germans tried to destroy the city industry because it was the main supplier of military equipment to the front. During much of the Soviet era, the city was closed to foreigners to safeguard the security of Soviet military research and production facilities, even though it was a popular stopping point for Soviet tourists traveling up and down the Volga in tourist boats.
Unusually for a Soviet city of that size, even street maps were not available for sale until the mids. November 20, in the city was launched the first section of the metro.
The physicist and Nobel laureate Andrei Sakharov was exiled there during — to limit his contacts with foreigners. An end to the "closed" status of the city accompanied the reinstatement of the city's original name in Minin and Pozharsky Square.
Church of the Nativity. The Spit confluence of Oka and Volga Rivers. Bolshaya Pokrovskaya Street. The th anniversary of Nizhny Novgorod is a large-scale holiday.
It will be celebrated in In September 22, , President of Russia Vladimir Putin signed the Decree  "On the celebration of the th anniversary of the founding of the city of Nizhny Novgorod.
In the official version year of foundation Nizhny Novgorod — First data appeared in the Lavrentievsky chronicles of the XIV century.
City Day is celebrated on the third saturday of August. The culmination of the celebration of the th anniversary will be celebrated from August 19 to 21, the closest dates to the actual date of the founding of the city.
The program includes three areas: Symbols, Restoration and Environment Symbols  : transformation and filling with new ideas of key urban places.
There are 7 objects that are symbols. Environment  - these are 33 objects and territories, as well as construction transport transition in the Sormovsky district.
As part of the direction Restoration  , 69 houses are being restored on the historic city center territory, located on the main streets of the old Nizhny.
Since May , residents submitted more than offers to the Nizhny portal. Up to volunteers will participate in the organization of key events and projects.
A volunteer  can be anyone aged 16 years, regardless of nationality. A year before the holiday, people applied for volunteers on the Nizhny portal.
The theme of the Nizhniy Novgorod th anniversary is also present at international events. Vladimir Putin visited the pavilion of the th anniversary of Nizhny Novgorod on the forum "Russia is a sports power".
In honor of the anniversary of will be made precious coins  of the Bank of Russia. Nizhny Novgorod is divided by the Oka River into two distinct parts.
It includes three of the eight city districts into which the city is administratively divided:. Daylight saving time is no longer observed.
In the first weather station was opened in Nizhny Novgorod. A century later it transformed into Gorky Hydrometeorological service, then since it is known as the Higher Volga hydrometeorology and natural habitat control department.
The climate in the region is continental, specifically humid continental Dfb , and it is similar to the climate in Moscow , although colder in winter, which lasts from late November until late March with a permanent snow cover.
Nizhny receives on average 1 hours of sunshine a year. The maximum duration of daylight is in June 17 hours 44 minutes , the minimum - in December 6 hours 52 minutes.
In autumn and winter the overcast is usually in the mornings, then the sky clears in the afternoon. In spring and summer, on the contrary, it is clear in the mornings, while towards midday clouds cluster ' cumulus cloud ' , and disappear towards the evening.
In spring temperatures set above zero around April 5 and stay until the end of October. Generally, days out of enjoy some form of precipitation. Snow first comes in October but the blanket of snow insulates the ground at November-end and melts mid-April.
A storm rarely takes place in winter here a few dates to mention are 27 November , 30 November , 14 February , and 3 December In spring there's less precipitation than in other seasons.
Spring flies by as snow melts in the second half of March and is normally gone by the end of April. Maximum heat can be observed towards the third decade of July.
Summer rain is short but intense, with strong wind. It rains often and heavily in autumn , the sky is overcast. Nizhny Novgorod is one of the centers of the IT industry in Russia.
Intel has a big software research and development center with more than engineers in the city, as well as a major datacenter.
Nizhny Novgorod has also been chosen as one of four sites for building an IT-oriented technology park — a special zone that has an established infrastructure and enjoys a favorable tax and customs policy.
Public transportation within the city is provided by a trams , marshrutkas routed taxis , buses, and trolleybuses.
Electric and diesel commuter trains run to suburbs in several directions. Nizhny Novgorod Metro underground rapid transit system was opened in ; it now has two lines with 15 stations, connecting with railway terminal , and carrying , passengers daily.
Together with the metro it forms a system of high-speed rail transport of the city. It has two lines: Sormovskaya and Priokskaya.
It was founded on June 24, on the basis of the Gorky Railway , as an addition to the metro. Since , there has been a railway connection between Nizhny Novgorod and Moscow.
Nizhny Novgorod is an important center of Volga cargo and passenger shipping. In a small number of Meteor-class hydrofoils resumed operations on the Volga river.
In August , river navigation within the region was resumed. The system of Nizhny Novgorod's bus terminals underwent significant changes in , as the old main intercity bus terminal in Lyadov Square just south of downtown closed, and a new bus terminal opened in Scherbinki, a few miles to the south.
Out of the three bus terminals, only the Kanavino station is near a subway line; the other two are connected with the rest of the city by city buses.
In , the cableway connecting Nizhny Novgorod and Bor was launched. It has the largest unsupported span in Europe above the water surface is metres 2, feet.
The main purpose is to provide an alternative type of passenger transportation in addition to river taxis, electric trains and buses.
The cable car has also become a popular tourist attraction, thanks to panoramic views from the cabins. July 31, on the cable car there was an incident.
The lightning struck a metal support near the booth in which people were. At this time there was a heavy thunderstorm and the cable car was stopped.
However, people were already in the cabins. The air base Sormovo was an important military airlift facility, and Pravdinsk air base was an interceptor aircraft base during the Cold War.
It is unknown when the first aerodrome in Nizhny Novgorod was built, but its location was 0. This aerodrome was named Nizhny Novgorod Airport.
In , certain renovations were made in order to more efficiently exploit the existing facility whilst the new one is being built.
In June , the construction of new terminal started. It is supposed to be opened by December and be able to handle around passengers per hour.
The second terminal will be built after the FIFA World Cup , hosted by Nizhny Novgorod among others, and the aforementioned railway station is planned to be constructed during that time as well.
The new terminal was opened on December 29, as the first flight, from Moscow, was directed there. Airport authority plans to redirect all the domestic flights to the new terminal by February and all the international flights by April Much of the city downtown is built in the Russian Revival and Stalin Empire styles.
The dominating feature of the city skyline is the grand Kremlin — , with its red-brick towers. After Bolshevik devastation, the only ancient edifice left within the Kremlin walls is the tent-like Archangel Cathedral — , first built in stone in the 13th century.
There are more than unique historic, architectural, and cultural monuments in the city. There are about municipal and regional art and cultural institutions within Nizhny Novgorod.
Among these institutions there are eight theaters, five concert halls, 97 libraries with branches , 17 movie theaters including five for children , 25 institutions of children's optional education, eight museums 16 including branches , and seven parks.
The center of the fair was the main building in the spirit of classicism and the side administrative buildings that formed the central square.
To protect from floods, a 3. The main focus of the exhibition is the history of Nizhny Novgorod , starting from Finno-Ugric peoples.
On the territory of the complex there are departments in which they tell about the foundation of the city, the struggle for independence in the Time of Troubles and the bombing of the city during the World War II.
On the first day of work, the entrance to the exhibition was free, because of which a long line lined up in front of the Main Fair Building.
The art gallery in Nizhny Novgorod is a large and important art gallery and museums of human history and culture.
Finally what makes this gallery extremely important is the amazing collection Russian avant-garde with works by Kazimir Malevich , Wassily Kandinsky , Natalia Goncharova , Mikhail Larionov and so on.
There is also collection of East Asian art. Other notable landmarks are the two great medieval abbeys. The Pechersky Ascension Monastery features the austere five-domed cathedral and two rare churches surmounted by tent roofs, dating from the s.
The Annunciation monastery, likewise surrounded by strong walls, has another five-domed cathedral and the Assumption church The only private house preserved from that epoch formerly belonged to the merchant Pushnikov.
There can be little doubt that the most original and delightful churches in the city were built by the Stroganovs in the nascent Baroque style. Of these, the Virgin's Nativity Church  graces one of the central streets, whereas the Church of Our Lady of Smolensk  —97 survives in the former village of Gordeyevka now, part of the city's Kanavinsky District , where the Stroganov palace once stood.
There is also a mosque in Sennaya Square, where the Muslim populations of the city go for Friday prayers , Islamic activities and activities which are organized by the mosque.
There is also a small shop to buy halal meats. Most of the Muslims in this city are Tatars. The centrally located Nizhny Novgorod Synagogue was built in —; disused during the Soviet era, it was renovated and reopened circa Power for the metropolis comes from two thermal-electric plants in Nizhny Novgorod—the Balakhna peat-burning station and the hydroelectric station at Zavolzhye.
Nizhny Novgorod is the focus of excellent communications by river, road, rail, and air. Railways connect it with Moscow, Kirov on the Trans-Siberian line , and Arzamas , and electrified suburban lines serve the metropolitan area.
Nizhny Novgorod has numerous institutions of higher learning, including the N. Lobachevsky State University founded There is also a state art museum and one of the oldest drama theatres in Russia established Nizhny Novgorod.
Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.
Britannica Quiz. Passport to Europe. Britannica Premium: Serving the evolving needs of knowledge seekers. Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.
In the Ural Mountains region, the towns are more widely spaced and include…. Russia , country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia.